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Development Of Ethnic Identity Measure For Cordillera Indigenous People  


Abstract Category: Other Categories
Course / Degree: M.A. Psychology
Institution / University: Apayao State College, Philippines
Published in: 2010


Magazine/Journal Abstract / Summary:

The purpose of the study is to develop then assess the factor structure, reliability and validity of the Ethnic Identity Measure for Cordillera Indigenous People (EIM for CIP). The initial 60-items were developed based on three factors: exploration, commitment and cultural practices. The item structure was reviewed by scale experts while the content was reviewed by a panel of Cordillera indigenous people and experts on Cordillera indigenous people’s consciousness.

Factor analysis for the original 60 items ethnic identity measure for Cordillera indigenous people resulted to 27 items EIM for CIP with three factors namely: attitude towards own ethnic group, cultural preference and Cordillera indigenous people’s consciousness. Factor I: attitude towards own ethnic identity had the most number of items and included items which were developmental aspect of ethnic identity such as awareness and exploration of one’s identity (Phinney, 1992) and the individuals feelings as a member of an ethnic group (Laishley, 1975). Factor II: cultural preference includes 6 items which shows the individuals choice of Cordillera material (foods) and non-material (music and language) culture. Ethnic group preference is also evident in the items in Factor II. Factor II also give us idea on the individuals’ recognition of ethnic differences, cultural differences and individuals choice of friends and peers. Factor III: Cordillera indigenous people’s consciousness has 8 items which directly measures attitudes towards specific issues among indigenous people in Cordillera. The mean scores tell us that the respondents agree with the items listed and further more shows there is a growing assertion of one’s identity, and heritage (Victor, 2008). Factor I is significantly correlated with Factor III which shows us that one’s attitude towards his own ethnic groups is also shape by the social issues surrounding them.

The EIM for CIP was found to have extensive internal consistency (.73) and high convergent validity when correlated with self-esteem (r=.213; p=.002)

The high interfactor correlations indicated that the 27-items EIM for CIP is highly related to each other and can be used to measure the level of ethnic identity among Cordillera indigenous people. Additionally, each factor can also be used to measure certain aspect of the individual ethnic identity. Factor I can be used to measure the individual attitude toward his own ethnic group. Factor II will give one’s cultural preference and Factor III can help us measure the students’ disposition on Cordillera indigenous people’s issues.

As for its validity, the study shows that there is a highly significant correlation between self-esteem and EIM for CIP. Among the different components of EIM for CIP only Factor III was not correlated with self-esteem which suggests one’s consciousness of their culture and heritage is not related to one’s self-esteem or this result could be attributed to the fact that Filipino by nature draws their self-esteem from collective group and not from individualistic point of view as measured by Rosenberg’s Self esteem scale.

The EIM for CIP’s strength is that it is the only ethnic identity measure prepared to measure ethnic identity among Cordillera indigenous people and unlike other measures on ethnic identity (foreign made) EIM for CIP is the only measure that has items which included specific cultural preference and culturally based issues and concerns. This is very important because valuing and appreciation of one’s cultural practices according to Cokley (2007), and Ponteretto and Park (2007) is one’s expression of the sense of belonging to a group.

The limitation of the EIM for CIP is that it can only be used for literate indigenous people in Cordillera. The EIM for CIP is definitely not intended to measure ethnic identity of other ethnic group in Cordillera, specially the migrants. However, one may try to use Factor I (attitude towards ethnic group) to measure ethnic identity of other Philippine indigenous ethnic group since the statements in Factor I are generally stated and that the concepts of “respect for elders” are common to all ethnic groups in the Philippines specially to indigenous groups. In Factor II, only the first four items may be used to other ethnic group but not the last three items in Factor II since they are specific cultural behaviors in Cordillera. In doing this one should keep in mind to check the reliability, validity and goodness of fit of the data for a more accurate interpretation. Also, one needs to consider translating the item to their native tongue. For Cordillera however, there is no need to translate since Cordillera is the only English speaking region in the north.


Magazine/Journal Keywords/Search Tags:
Ethnic Identity, indigenous people, consciousness

This Magazine/Journal Abstract may be cited as follows:
Olvida, Cheryl F., (2010). Development of Ethnic Identity Measure for Cordillera Indigenous People, Educational Measurement and Evaluation Review, 1(1), 78-89.


Submission Details: Magazine/Journal Abstract submitted by Cheryl F. Olvida from Philippines on 03-Feb-2016 07:29.
Abstract has been viewed 1274 times (since 7 Mar 2010).

Cheryl F. Olvida Contact Details: Email: lyrecholvida@yahoo.com Phone: 09212873084



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