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The Knowledge and Behaviour of Injecting Drug Users Related to the Risk of HIV: A Study of Bhaktapur District, Nepal  


Abstract Category: Science
Course / Degree: Rural Development
Institution / University: Tribhuvan University, Nepal
Published in: 2007


Thesis Abstract / Summary:

The community of IDUs is in crucial stage in the present time. There are no specific and academic research studies on this population. There are very few initiations, but all these initiations do not cover the proper account and interest of IDU’s community. Therefore this study was purposed to study on IDUs’ community in Bhaktapur district, Nepal. The overall objective of the study was to assess the present knowledge and behavior in relation to the risk of HIV among injecting Drug Users (IDUs) of Bhaktapur district, Nepal. The study employed descriptive as well explorative research design without proposing any hypothesis for testing. Both primary and secondary data were used, but primary data were mainly used to analyze the present knowledge and behavior of IDUs in Bhaktapur district. Whereas, secondary data were used at the time of literature review of the study reviewing the various publications and previous research studies pertained to the field of study. Interview was the major technique applied in order to collect primary data from IDUs. A form of questionnaire was used to collect primary data from IDUs. Structured with close and open ended questions were used in the questionnaire. The study comprised 34 samples of IDUs for the study. Lot Quantity Assurance Survey (LQAS) method was used to determine the sample size of the study. The study comprised no any female IDUs for the interview. All 34 respondents were male IDUs. The operation of interview was held in SMF-DIC and Outreach area maintaining confidentiality and anonymity with IDUs. The study collected data as planned. All IDUs accepted interviews well and gave fact information. All data were scrutinized, edited carefully, analyzed in SPSS program and presented using simple statistical tools such as frequency count, percentage, cross-tabulation, etc. The tables and figures were also presented to facilitate the findings. The most sensitive issue on moral rights of human is to live and right to have access to information, services that are crucial to help protect themselves from life threatening diseases like HIV/AIDS. The age of the Injecting Drug Users has been shifting towards the older age group and from illiterate to the educated population. Most of the IDUs were labor workers thus reflecting the intervention programs need towards these groups. There was drastic shift from non-injecting towards injecting for the past 3-5 years. The trend of taking mixed drug and the frequency of injection per day was also in the increasing trend. The sharing of used needles was in decreasing trend; however there were still some IDUs who share needles/syringes among the injecting partners and who reused of own used syringe. There was change in the reason behind sharing behavior as SMF provided syringes to them .The use of saliva and urine for the cleaning of once used needles and syringes was also prevalent among the IDUs. All were aware about different modes of transmission and the methods of prevention of HIV. The visit to the health centers for the treatment of STDs showed that there still remains some gap; the IDUs need to be facilitated to identify STD and visit the health centers whenever necessary. Although the study did not reveal adverse consequences of health associated with injecting drug use and poly drug use behavior, findings of the study were adequate to interpret the knowledge and behavior in relation to the risk of HIV among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Bhaktapur district, Nepal. The study found that most vulnerable age of drug abuse is teen and young age, which is considered as economically active age in life. Most of the IDUs inject drugs more than 3 times in a day. They expand huge amount of money in injecting the drug in a week. Peer culture / pressure are main dominant factor, which influences the drug use behavior of IDUs. Most of IDUs reported that they started to take drug due to peer pressure; their peers introduced them drug in the first time; they get drugs from peers and inject living with peers. Therefore, there is high possibility of needles/syringes sharing among IDUs, which can lead them towards HIV and other viral infections. However, the study revealed the present knowledge and behavior in relation to the risk of HIV transmission among injecting drug users comprising 34 samples of IDUs in Bhaktapur district.

  • The present study applied descriptive and explorative research design to assess the knowledge and behavior in relation to the risk of HIV among injecting drug users of Bhaktapur district. There may be still many areas, which need to studied and understood. Therefore, future studies should employ and integrate both qualitative and quantitative research designs to describe better the context within injecting drug use occurs.
  • The study did not reveal the base line data and adverse health consequences associated with Injecting Drug Use and Poly Drug Use of IDUs. So, future studies should cover these areas.
  • There should be proper policies and intervention for IDUs’ population. Policies and interventions targeting IDUs should be more extensive and more effective.
  • Most of IDUs were young in age, which is considered economically active age in life. It is well known that injecting drug use more vulnerable to HIV and other blood born viral infection rather than other modes of drug use. On the other hand, most of drug users are shifting their drug use modes from smoking, swallowing and chasing to injecting. Therefore, there should be effective campaigns to increase the awareness against the injecting drug use targeting drug users as well as other general population.
  • The Harm Reduction program should aim at minimizing syringe sharing and re-use of once used syringe. This does not necessarily mean that IDUs be supplied more syringes. Few syringes with more counseling, awareness on harms of injecting behavior and method of cleaning the used syringe can help attain this goal.
  • Lack of regular use of condom might increase HIV infection among IDUs and their partners. The IDUs must be encouraged for the regular and correct use of condom during sex with FSWs and other sex partners as well through awareness campaigns followed by access to condom whenever required.
  • Most of IDUs were unemployed in the present study, but they reported their need of money; they all reported that they get money from themselves. They might be involved in some odd and illegal works. They all expend their income in drug what they get. Therefore, there should be a proper policies and interventions, which mobilize IDUs to be self-dependent.
  • Evidence from the literature shows that injecting drug users are considered as more vulnerable population to HIV diffusion. Therefore, there should be an effective program in national wide in the population of IDUs for the prevention of HIV diffusion among and from IDUs.
  • Bleach and water use for cleaning the used syringe/needles was low among the IDUs so such safe cleaning practice ought to be promoted via demonstration of the process and accessibility of bleach and sterile water.
  • Treatment of STD cases was low among the IDUs .This shows that the diagnosis and treatment facilities should be accessible to them and they must be encouraged to utilize such services. IEC activities regarding STDs and Hepatitis should be strengthened.
  • Behavior Change Communication (BCC) education seems low among IDUs. Therefore, program intervention should focus BCC education effectively in the future.
  • The organization ought to facilitate the IDUs towards sufficient quota for drug treatment and employment opportunities to support general and HIV infected IDUs after treatment.
  • Most of the IDUs felt very helpful program of Siddhi Memorial Foundation, Bhaktapur, Harm Reduction Program, it is recommended to continue its services in future in sustainable way.


Thesis Keywords/Search Tags:
IDUs, drug, HIV, Nepal

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Submission Details: Thesis Abstract submitted by Bishnu Prasad Shrestha from Nepal on 03-Nov-2008 11:03.
Abstract has been viewed 3324 times (since 7 Mar 2010).

Bishnu Prasad Shrestha Contact Details: Email: princegorkha@live.com



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