Abstract Category: Engineering
Course / Degree: master of science
Institution / University: Private, Germany
Published in: 2014

Paper Abstract / Summary:

Sink holes are cavities big and small formed under the surface that suddenly collapse and swallow whatever is above it. A hole can swallow a vehicle and even a house. Very tragic is when people also disappear in it when it collapses. It has happened.

They are formed in great depths and near the upper surface of the ground. At present they are at rise. Latent desertification is spreading all over and water from rain is not held up without falling to the ground the way it had been. The trees hold a lot of water when it rains. As a result there are much water available to percolate into the ground and dissolve and corrode rocks and soil at their week stretches as it trickles down into the ground.

The water that falls have more acidity than it had been under natural conditions. It has to be so, and there is no out. In the same time it is possible acid from heavens. In the air there is hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. All three together form nitric acid. In the waters there is chlorine. It is not found in mother rocks and is not found in the depths. It is possible they enter from space. If so the acidity can come from all sides. Very common are acidity from CO2 and SO2 dissolved in water.

If one already has a house or building on a lime rich or soil-filled area then checking whether the building is sink-hole threatened or not can be done in many ways. Best way is to drill a hole with a diameter of 5 cms (or more as one wishes) to a minimum depth one metre. This has to be done in every room, sooner the better. Preferably in the centre. Then measure the behaviour of the bottom with a measuring rod. It is advisable to do it every month at the beginning and later at least once a year.

The hole must be protected by a steel pipe-wall. The top of the pipe must be closed with any material one wishes provided it is stable. It can be of cement to suit the floor. Or it can be of plastic, steel or even aluminium. The hole must be tightly closed to avoid ground gases coming up.
Secondly, after measuring the depth one should test the stability of the ground below. One takes a steel rod longer than the depth of the hole and beats it on the top with a strong hammer. If the soil remains firm then one is save. If problems do arise, then measures must be taken to stop worsening. You can ask advice per e-mail. snb1898@gmail.com.

Besides, after completing the initial stage, one should make holes to a depth of two metres or more around the building at reasonable distances. Preferably about ten metres from one another. If the building is big, more than 50 m², then it is of much use if one does a two metre hole at the middle of the building. These holes must be walled with steel pipe. And periodically measurements must be taken to calculate the behaviour of the soil. In this hole too a steel rod must be inserted and the stability of the soil below tested by beating on the top by a hammer.

Paper Keywords/Search Tags:
sink hole

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Submission Details: Paper Abstract submitted by Balasupramaniam Paramahamsa from Germany on 30-Jun-2014 13:56.
Abstract has been viewed 2104 times (since 7 Mar 2010).

Balasupramaniam Paramahamsa Contact Details: Email: eecoltd2@gmail.com

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