Atmosphere And Sea Level  

Abstract Category: Engineering
Course / Degree: master of science
Institution / University: Private, United Kingdom
Published in: 2014

Paper Abstract / Summary:

For a planet to have an atmosphere it should have enough mass to hold the air with its force of gravity. For instance moon has no atmosphere. Its mass is still not enough to hold the gases. As for Earth it must have been more than a billion years ago that it got the necessary mass to hold the gases from escaping as they fall down or come out from the depths.

Earth´s mass is still increasing and may go so for a long time to come. It is increasing with solid falls as well as gases that enter the Earth´s domain. It is being suggested, disputably, that the increase is about 3 tons per year. This means, statistically, the Earth´s mass has increased at least by 3 million tons in the last ten millenniums. Unless, there had been more falls like at Chelyabinsk in the year 2013. The small Asteroid had weighed about 12 to 13 tons, which adds up to become about 15 tons per annum.
The increase in mass increases the gravity too. That in turn increases the pressure of the atmosphere. And high air pressure leads to less evaporation. As such it must have an effect on the Sea-level. But effect is so little per millennium that it is of use only for scientific research over the history of the Earth´s atmosphere and the life on it. For instance, one can hypothesise that dinosaurs were so big because the gravity had been much less than today´s.
Earth´s atmosphere rises high up. One can theoretically say till the Earth´s domain meets the Sun´s domain. And it changes when other Planets and satellites interfere. For instance, the position of the moon. But for Sea-level the importance lie in the lower thousand kilometres. From that the part above the height of about 10 km is important only for molecular researches. Hydrogen and helium are there and one does not know whether they fall and what they do when they do enter the atmosphere. Most probably, if they do come then there are many undetected clouds and rain falls. Let alone one like Noah´s or Deucalion´s deluge which lasted forty days and forty nights. Whatsoever, the presence of proton in the space is a matter to be reckoned with as far as, not only Sea-level is concerned but also the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere.
Within the ten kilometres lower half is the cloud forming region. Some call the region as snow line region. It wavers up and down depending mainly on the convections and heat waves caused by solar radiation. And there are also surprises which send cloud forming region up and down. They come from the space as well from deep volcanic depths. Then there are gradual height changes caused by human activities, mainly latent-desertification. And in wild-life the amount of herbivores grazing about also change the cloud forming height; and many more smaller factors including wild fires.
If the snow-line goes higher then the Sea-level too goes higher, and when snow-line sinks the Sea-level sinks too.
There are many gases in the atmosphere. The mix is called the air. They move around in a turbulent always varying mixture. Some components react with one another while most of them are for themselves, segregating according to their specific gravities when the weather permits. And as turbulence and heat waves whirl they mix again. Their concentrations have certain stability but never permanently fixed. It varies due to molecular invasion from the space; actions coming up from the depths of the crust; the amount of biology; the fermenting in the marshes and swamps; industries and many others. This varying concentration brings about problems to the Sea-level.
The one that has been making much headlines due to varying concentration is the theme “Global warming”. This comes about when carbon-di-oxide and other gases with higher specific heat get increased in their percentage in the atmosphere. The recent increase has been mainly carbon-di-oxide caused by human activities. No human is free of guilt, if one can call it a guilt. Mostly, it has been blamed on industries and motor car lovers. Some add agriculture and animal husbandry to it too.
However, behind in back ghettoes, slums and villages where people of the lowest spectrum of the society thrive, out of helplessness and lack of knowledge, more harm is done to the atmosphere than all the others together. Namely through latent-desertification: cooking with wood, and burning litter for their meagre cleanliness, wood for huts, removal of flora for space to have the extra-curriculum and so on. In some areas they take away last drop of water from the ground too. And in last few decades, in contrast to earlier, the encroachment of jungles by the poor-man for his livelihood and for refuge from different kinds of conflicts has begun to add enormous harm to the air. All these things upset the atmosphere and directly add water to the seas.
The second important vector is the amount of moisture in the air. Presently, it is decreasing in the atmosphere. It is falling rapidly due to the spread of Latent-desertification and Desertification proper. Though the two phenomena are not new, they began some hundred thousand years ago or more as homo-sapiens were spreading across the landscapes, at present, inevitably, their rate is very high. It is the depletion of flora and consumption of wood. With them progresses the reduction of the humidity of the air. When humidity falls, water transfer by air reduces and consequently precipitation fails. In some cases like in Horn of Africa, in Sahel and Southern Sahara, Aral-Sea-Basin, Lake Chad rains repeatedly failed for years, without a drop falling. And since few years even perennial rain forests are hit with rain failure and even forest fires.
In addition the depleted and exposed dried surfaces widening due to the failing of precipitation, heat the air more and raise the snow-line higher and higher. As the sea wind catches momentum due to the increased heat energy in the air on the lands and raised snow-line, the meagre moisture is driven above the mountains to whirl around. And eventually more amount precipitate over the oceans than on the mountains. This means gradual rise in Sea-level; a double negative effect.
At present, many factors are catalysing one another. The Atmosphere is playing havoc. Much of the daily solar energy is held in transit in the air. Because much of solar energy is not stored naturally on the Earth´s surface the way it had been earlier. The increasing not stored heat-energy sends winds in very high devastating speeds. They make rains to fail on lands and blast much sand away to settle in the oceans.
Air in the Atmosphere, like water in rivers, erode and transport sands from place to place. It is called “aeolovial erosion”. Wandering sand dunes are a beauty. So are sand rains if one didn´t get caught to it. But much of it settle daily in the oceans. It is the top soil which had taken millions of years to form that get blown off. With it goes the humus which is an ingredient to soil fertility. All, sooner or later, fall into the seas to raise the Sea-level.
The other devastations the atmosphere brings about are the horrors of cyclone, hurricane and tornadoes, typhoons and others. They are now more and harder because less solar energy is naturally stored due to Latent-desertification and desertification. The air has much energy in transit than in earlier centuries. The energy in transit, the not stored natural energy, just travel back to the space ad-infinitum. As it travels back, rising high in the return trip, it plays havoc.
Atmosphere is a carrier. It holds energy in transit; and transports moisture, sand and dust from place to place. Much devastations could be avoided and gradually the Sea-level could be brought down and tuned to be at an agreed height, arguably, some 50 cms lower than it is today. The atmosphere is an important player.
Atmosphere and the glaciers:
That the glaciers are in decline is an old story. Since glaciers, when not disturbed, sit firm in the mountains, it is easy to see changes. It is a sight that tells stories. The first story is the rise in the snow line. This, mostly at day time. Less solar-energy is stored at the ground level. And that heats the air. The heated air raises the snow-line which could go to some hundreds of metres. That reckons well with the loss of glaciers in the mountains.
The lightness attained by the air in the lands brings winds to whirl more. And in the morning time they rise along the valleys carrying much heat upwards than before. The warm air with falling humidity stroke the glaciers as they rise and melt the surface to trickle down; they also evaporate and sublimate the ice and whirl them away. As morning turns to noon heat increases. And this impact doesn´t stop there. It has a domino effect. Namely the melt water as they trickle they undermine the soil below. They form notches, tunnels and caves under the glaciers. The empty gaps formed reach a critical point and ice blocks break down. They tumble down suddenly and with the momentum set off rapid flows down the valleys. It is ever increasing domino-fall that increase surface without snow and increase the surface heating.
Then the most punishing consequence is the reduction in precipitation. Glaciers lose their feeding snow-falls that help cope with the losses they have due to the melting and drying. This leads to threefold strain. One: loss from the bottom as the undermining advances. Two: sublimation and drying from the exposed surface. And third: nothing adds on the top. All leads to higher settling in the oceans of water and eroded debris.
Heated atmosphere melts snows and glaciers and Erosion on the march
There are many more impulses in the atmosphere which should be good but have turned bad. As time passes, for many landscapes it may be too late. The beauties are still left in the real world. At this rate of denudation, many landscapes will remain only in photographs and films. Also in stories and legends narrated by historians and writers. Like the ones below which are sacrificed to the heating and wind aggression of the recent decades.
Just few decades ago they were standing majestically. They gave an impression of indefatigable monuments meant to last forever. Few knew that they are getting the ground under their feet sabred microns after microns as day turns night and night turns day. As the winter turns spring, and Autumn turns winter. Erosion, increased as the hot winds climb up as spring turns summer, the melting of the ice sheets, makes the water flowing down the valley to increase its momentum by increasing the volume and adding much heavy sands which have more than twice the specific gravity.
Therefore, cool down the atmosphere. How?

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Submission Details: Paper Abstract submitted by Balasupramaniam Paramahamsa from United Kingdom on 11-Sep-2014 15:57.
Abstract has been viewed 2743 times (since 7 Mar 2010).

Balasupramaniam Paramahamsa Contact Details: Email: eecoltd2@gmail.com

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