Depicting Coastal Morphological Landscape Evolution From Anthropogenic Activities & Building Management Strategies For ‘coast In Crisis’ In The ‘state Of Kuwait’  

Abstract Category: Engineering
Course / Degree: PhD in Technology
Institution / University: Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India, India
Published in: 2014

Thesis Abstract / Summary:

The study was conducted with the motive of investigating a) the trend in the evolution of Kuwait coastal morphological landscape (CML) and coastline from 1960s to 2012; b) to understand coastal landscape degradation and deterioration happening; and c) future scenarios in Kuwait. This research on evolution and trend of CML primarily focused on the 500km coast of Kuwait, particularly the mainland and secondarily with its nine islands. As Kuwait’s economy transformed enormously with oil based industries, the country faces numerous environmental challenges, especially due to the modifications of coastal ecosystems. This research work is expected to provide sufficient support towards developing management strategies to protect the coastal environment and suggestions for mitigation measures.

The multidisciplinary research was carried out with the aim of providing answer to sustainability, demographic influences, carrying capacity, and management of the coast. Various components of this research include rigorous literature review, historic investigation, visual data interpretation, land use land cover and coastline change detection using remote sensing data, assessing the impact on coastal evolution, determining carrying capacity, buffering, visioning setback, and building management strategies to pave way for protecting coastal resources and habitats.

The research has come up with substantial information, findings and outcomes. Focused information and findings derived out of this research are listed below:

The study shows that the physiognomy of the coastal landscape created by geological, geomorphologic, biological factors and coastal process was greatly shaped by oil based development from the time of discovery in 1938. Remarkably it is interesting to note that till 2012 certain zones of coast in Kuwait showed priority in encroaching and occupying more than any other parts.

Historic Coastal Morphological Landscape Characterization & Assessment (HCMLC&A) represent a new way of historically characterizing the landscape and understanding the coastal evolution.

The study indicates the specific drivers and human factors responsible for bringing the change in CML which differed from the period of early migration, settlement and inhabitation – to the period of oil exploration and oil based revenue - to post oil revenue.

The uncontrolled growth in spatial development have changed CML with activities such as rubble from historical sites that was bulldozed into the sea, obliterating the natural character of the shoreline which occurred in the 1950s and 1960s.

Drainage of Iraqi Mesopotamian Marshland had fluctuating impact on erosion and accretion of Kuwait coastline which was noticed from the three Epochs 1972-1990; 1990-2007; and 2007-2011.

The studies indicate that the coastal areas with the greatest population densities are also those with the most shoreline degradation that is arising from migration, and associated demand for economic development within the coastal area and activities including, e.g., reclamation, the filling of shallow, near-shore waters to be used for various purposes.

The RIAM study gives clear indication that anthropogenic activities in Kuwait have interfered and are interfering with environmental components thereby bringing changes or modifying or altering the natural CML.

Concepts and outcome of carrying capacity study for CML would facilitate in carrying out similar type of study in future for additional ecological components with sampling, analysis and measurement for physical, chemical, and biological parameters supported by modeling studies.

One of the highlight of the work is the importance of manmade impact on evolution of coast and stressing the priority of coastal management through sustainable development considering coastal zoning, buffering and set-back.

The Interrelationship Diagraph constructed for mitigation and control measures clearly indicated that “Building of coastal management strategies” is the place to begin.

SWOT study concludes that the weak part of the coastal management in Kuwait is more than strengths.

SPACE results indicated that the vector settles in the defensive zone, it means that the internal weak points should be amended and external threats should be avoided. Internal weak points and external threats documented in the SWOT matrix were given priority while formulating strategies and considering the priorities.

QSPM tool allowed strategists to evaluate alternative strategies objectively but it required good intuitive judgment. All the strategies developed are subjected to future modification because the external and internal factors constantly changes.

Strategies were formulated and 24 of them were prioritized through QSPM.

AHP/ANP with SuperDecision helped as an effective means of dealing with complex decision-making for the strategies to be prioritized and optimized. AHP/ANP helped capture both subjective and objective evaluation measures, providing a useful mechanism for checking their consistency related to considered alternatives, thus reducing bias in decision making particularly during the SWOT-QSPM process. The derived strategies increased the effectiveness to draw the attention of the policy makers to develop National dedicated coastal policies for the State of Kuwait.

The entire study has established that the coastal land is the favorable place for development thereby it is prone to adverse impact on natural landscape. This would increase, if timely measures are not taken to avert the threat. These research findings positively throw light to protect the vulnerable and limited coastal morphological landscape of Kuwait from depletion and deterioration. The coast should be subjected to sustainable development with wisdom and love for nature. Ultimately developing National Coastal Index Map (NCIM) on GIS platform is an encouragement from this study. This research concludes that pressure from demographic and cultured based development in the coastal zone would adversely affect the coastal zone landscape if not managed effectively.

Thesis Keywords/Search Tags:
Historic characterization, land use and land cover; coastline, remote sensing, modeling, RIAM, carrying capacity, sensitivity, setback distance, SWOT, SPACE, QSPM, AHP/ANP

This Thesis Abstract may be cited as follows:
Baby, S. 2014. Depicting Coastal Morphological Landscape Evolution from Anthropogenic Activities & Building Management Strategies for ‘Coasts in Crisis’ in the ‘State of Kuwait. Pp. 476. A Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy in Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi. India.

Submission Details: Thesis Abstract submitted by Saji Baby from Kuwait on 11-Nov-2015 04:10.
Abstract has been viewed 1294 times (since 7 Mar 2010).

Saji Baby Contact Details: Email: sajimathewvk@hotmail.com

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